Tuesday, 29 September 2015



Geography – GCSE level.

The concept of a spherical earth dates back as least as far as the 6th century BCE, and is commonly attributed to Pythagoras. Ptolemy’s world map of 150CE, despite a mistaken measure of the earth’s circumference, is clearly based on a sphere with lines of longitude and latitude to record its coordinates, and contrary to popular belief, even in the dark ages hardly anyone thought that the earth was flat.

However, maps are often more useful than globes – they fold for convenient transport, they can be laid out flat for simple perusal, and they can be easily made at a vast range of different scales. Take a large scale globe with you on your travels and instead of a conquistador, the natives might think you were a pilates instructor.

But the problem of map projection – portraying a sphere’s surface on a plane – has existed for as long as the knowledge that one can’t sail off the edge of the world, and in the early 19th Century, Gauss’s Theorema Egregium proved once and for all that a sphere’s surface couldn’t be represented on a plane without distortion. Which brings us to this attempt to fit an oblate spheroid peg into a two-dimensional hole...

The teacher has made a good choice of map projection by avoiding the infamously distorting Mercator projection, which was deprecated with all other cylindrical projections in a 1989 resolution by seven North American geographical groups. The Mercator projection maps the sphere on to a rectangle, and the teacher here is clearly using a pseudocylindrical projection, using only the central meridian as a straight line. From the shape of the oval that she has drawn around her continents it looks like she is using a Mollweide or Tobler hyperelliptical projection – a good compromise between not distorting shapes and preserving area measure.

The Mercator projection, albeit useful for mariners with its ability to represent lines of constant course as straight segments that conserve the angles with the meridians, infamously makes Greenland larger than Australia. At least the teacher has avoided that error, albeit by not putting either Greenland or Australia on her map. Any map larger in scale than 1:1 must omit some detail, and the best maps are masterpieces of simplicity and clarity (consider Harry Beck's iconic London Underground diagram to realise that what is left out is as important as what is put in), but leaving out entire continents really cannot be excused. Although this photograph is undated, Australia was definitely discovered before the whiteboard was invented. Or indeed photography.

The Mercator projection is also criticised for being Euro-centric, for example showing Finland as extending further from north to south than the vast Indian subcontinent. Again, the teacher has avoided that politically incorrect error, but by not putting either Finland or India on her map. In fact, it would be easier to list what is on her map: the Americas (although Ferdinand de Lesseps would have a hard time building the Panama Canal across this Central American isthmus that is barely narrower than Brazil), Africa, and a blob that by a process of elimination must represent all the intricate islands and peninsulas of Europe. Russia extends east into Asia, but the age of discovery ends here, without so much as a “Here be kangaroos”.

Even with a globe in front of her to copy from Ptolemy’s map looks better than this, and he didn’t have the advantage of having a whiteboard to rub out any mistakes.

3/10 A good start, but over-simplified and incomplete to the point of being useless.


  1. May be it was an attempt to illustrate plate tectonics and this configuration is how Earth will look few hundreds millions years later.

  2. Nepal Base Camp Treks (P) Ltd (team guide) are not only provide you a perfect holiday tour services, also here to organize your trouble less trekking holidays in scenic green hills to icy peaks where reachable on foot.
    There are hundreds of best and fantastic trekking tour operators in Nepal, offer you to choose many popular trekking destinations in high Himalayas as, Everest Base Camp Trek, Everest Chola Pass Gokyo Lake trek, Everest Gokyo Renjo la Pass Trek, Annapurna Base Camp Trek, Annapurna Circuit Thorong La Pass Trek , Upper Mustang Trek,Annapurna Nar –Phu Hidden Valley Trek, Kanchenjunga Base Camp Trek, Manaslu Circuit via Tsum Valley Trek, Langtang Valley Trek,Gosaikund Helambu Trek, Kathmandu Valley Circuit Trek and untouched tourist destinations of Ganesh Himal Camping Trek, Tawal Earthquake Area Camping Trek, Upper Dolpa Trek, Makalu Base Camp Trek and much more… as you desirable.
    If you are looking for perfect trekking operator and perfect guide who take care all your responsible and looking unexpected trouble free holidays in Nepal, our professional guides, Bibek Gurung, Buddhi Tamang, Anjan Waiba, Debman Tamang and female guide Pramila Lama are our young and 10 /12 year experienced license holder in Nepal Base Camp Treks (P) Ltd.
    We are fully government Registered small group trekking company in nepal and trained under the ministry of tourism sector around 10/15 years. We operate only trekking in Nepal Himalaya and small peak climbing.
    You are heartily welcome to Nepal Base Camp Treks (P) Ltd. to experience your wonder trekking activities in Himalaya with our team believes "providing good service" is our motto. Our team also believes not to regret your past, not to worry about future but let's enjoy the journey with us.

  3. This comment has been removed by the author.

  4. free porn Http://www.pornclub24.com

  5. WebLiquids is one of the Leading and Best Digital Marketing Training Institute in Chandigarh. We provide the best Internet Marketing Course in Chandigarh, Panchkula, Mohali and Punjab (India) with 100% practical training. Our Advanced Collection of topics includes – SEO, PPC, ORM, Ad-words Training. Webliquids is providing Online Marketing Training in Chandigarh with live projects.

    Digital Marketing is the promotion of products or brands through one or more electronics devices and providing the best consumer Services. Digital Marketing as its name signifies is Marketing over the Internet through various digital devices (Computers) such as Personal Computers, Tablets, Cell phones, Smart phones, TV etc . You can Check the Advantages of Digital Marketing with these 10 Reasons Given.


  6. Thanks for sharing info. Keep up the good work...We hope you will visit our blog often as we discuss topics of interest to you
    homemade sex

  7. Click here for mom phone sex http://jackoffwithmommy.com

  8. I have been reading your posts regularly. I need to say that you are doing a fantastic job. Please keep up the great work.
    international dating london

  9. I found that Portugal is in fact the most racist place on earth; especially toward African blacks! It's as if they have never seen a black person before and the Portugee culture is not only backwards (as if you steped in a time machine and went to the year 1899) but the citizens where exceptionally ignorant. It was as if you were talking to a wall rather than a human being. The Portugee also seemed to be trapped in another dimension of space and time because they kept on talking and mumbling about the past rather than the present...it was pretty funny actually. I found this website that offers a Dr.'s opinion about the racism in Portugal and why the xenophobic culture is not just promoted within but exported as well to everywhere else they may be living. Strange since i've never heard of racism being described that way before?? Portugal seem to be experts in racism, especially in Canada and the U.S.


  10. I have been reading your posts regularly. I need to say that you are doing a fantastic job. Please keep up the great work.
    international dating milan

  11. Muy hot estas chicas visita http://latinporn.pw

  12. Love this preppy look! Especially the socks and shoes like it <3

    Vashi Escorts, Lucknow Escorts


  13. anal porno izle

    porno izle

    seks izle

    porno film izle

    porno film izle

    full porno izle

    online porno film izle
    videolarının bulunduğu her zaman güncel ve hızlı full porno izle
    me sitemizi hızlı oynayan videolarla stabill bir porno video sitesi yapmakta ciddi emek sarf ediyoruz. Her zaman en güncel porno videolarının yayınlandığı sitemizde farklı hd kalitede gerçek seks izle
    porno videoları ve farklı bir çok yerli porno videoları yayınlanmaktadır. Daima güncel olmayı vizyon edinmiş editörlerimizce titizlikle seçilen ev hanımı porno izle
    me ayrı kategoride yayınlanmaktadır. Dilediğiniz gerçek porno videolarını kolaylıkla bulabileceğiniz sitemizde keyifli zamanlar geçirmeniz anal porno izle
    me zevkine varın

    Adult dünyasında yani porno dünyasında birbirinden güzel Porno videolar bulunur.
    Bir çok kişi kısa Pornolardan sıkılmış porno film izle
    mek için arayışa girdikleri bellidir. Tüm bu porno
    zevklerinin sebeplerinden bir
    de porno film izle
    adında bir porno sitesinin açılmasıyla başlayan çok çeşitli Porno videolarıdır. Biz yine her zaman ki gibi
    Türk Pornoları ve buna benzer durumda olan sex videolarını izliyoruz.
    Kullanıcıların tamamı olmasa da arada bir kaç kullanıcı türkçe porno film izle
    diye arama yapıp bu tarz Porno izlemek istediklerini söyledi.
    Adult videolar tamamen kişisel zevke göre yayılmıştır özellikler hd porno
    filmler son zamanlarda daha fazla rağbet görmüş ve
    türk pornolarının da bu özelliklere sahip olması beklenmiştir. Tabi birde ateşli fanteziye sahip olan seks filmleri
    onları esgeçmeyelim. Her kullanıcı mutlaka kaliteli porno filmi
    izlemek istiyor. Donmadan hızlı açılan sex
    tatmin edebilecek düzeyde olması beklentisi var herkezde. Bir kısım kullanıcı da türk türbanlı pornolar olsun liseli pornolar olsun
    bunların yanında liseli amcık resimleride arıyorlar. porno izle
    ve Porno sikiş
    kelimeleride çok aranan kelimelerden Porno dünyasında zevkler sınır tanımıyor özellikle türkçe porno film izleyicileri
    anal porno izle
    pornoları arıyor. E o kadar Porno zevkine sikişenler sizce nasıl bir fanteziye bürünsün ki.
    Tüm kullanıcılar bunlardan ziyade bilinmeyen pornoları yani online porno izle
    arayışında. Bilinen videoların sanki hepsini izledik tükettik bunlar kaldı birde değil mi.

  14. have been reading your posts regularly. I need to say that you are doing a fantastic job. Please keep up the great work. Click here for webcam sex chat

  15. Let's concentrate on your strokes, on your handling your massive cock, on you ENJOYING the whole experience. I want you to reap pleasure from every second. Forget the finale; your task is to focus on masturbation itself and bringing yourself to orgasm. THAT is when I'll show you what to do, when I maneuver into position myself, slip my lips off this hot dildo in my hands, and hold it over my head to show you just how I want you to squirt right into your own mouth. THIS TIME, we're going to do it. Together.
    Visit here

  16. This comment has been removed by the author.

  17. Best Porn Videos here check out my links - http://goo.gl/VTlxRZ

  18. free porn video http://www.pornclub24.com

  19. free porn video http://www.pornclub24.com

  20. cool porn blog http://www.fuckhottube.com/

  21. >> http://goo.gl/I86lum <<< Kumpulan Foto HOT 18+


  22. arab sex stories

    مواقع قصص سكس فقط

    arab sex movies











    مواقع قصص سكس فقط


    منتديات نسوانجى

    منتديات سعودى

    منتديات خليجى

    منتديات امريكانى

    منتديات فرنساوى

    منتديات الانجليز

    منتديات مصرى

    منتديات سعودى

    منتديات قصص سكس نيك

    منتديات قصص سكس نيك 1

    منتديات قصص سكس نيك

    منتديات قصص سكس نيك 2

    منتديات قصص سكس نيك 3

    منتديات قصص سكس نيك 4

    منتديات قصص سكس نيك 5

    منتديات قصص سكس نيك 6

    منتديات قصص سكس نيك 7

    منتديات قصص سكس نيك 8

    منتديات قصص سكس نيك 9

    اكبر موقع قصص سكس

    قصص سكس محارم,قصص سكس سحاق,قصص سكس عربي,قصص سكس اللواط,قصص سكس السحاق,قصص سكس لواط,قصص سكس محارم,قصص سكس المحارم,قصص سكس,قصص سكس عرب,صور سكس,افلام سكس

  23. destek amaçlı bloguma göz atmak isteyenler için http://xxx-hd-movies-xxx.blogspot.com.tr/


  24. He has cheated upon his followers for years.
    He has had sexual intercourse with many of his close female disciples.
    He has used his father like gurus authority, and their childlike devotion and trust to sexualy abuse some of his most devoted (young) female students.
    Don't be afraid to post your story here,

    Join us with your story, your identity shall be protected and you can participate the way you feel comfortable.

    sex,scandal,false,guru,"yoga ",fake guru,abuse,swamy,swamiji,swami, sex,abuse, joga u svakodnevnom zivotu
    Sex Sex Sex
    Sex Sex Sex


  25. He has cheated upon his followers for years.
    He has had sexual intercourse with many of his close female disciples.
    He has used his father like gurus authority, and their childlike devotion and trust to sexualy abuse some of his most devoted (young) female students.
    Don't be afraid to post your story here,

    Join us with your story, your identity shall be protected and you can participate the way you feel comfortable.

    sex,scandal,false,guru,"yoga ",fake guru,abuse,swamy,swamiji,swami, sex,abuse, joga u svakodnevnom zivotu
    Sex Sex Sex
    Sex Sex Sex

  26. https://www.facebook.com/giaypega88

  27. Welcome to ProJizz, the home of WEBM porn. Upload and share your WEBM porn collection or build one of your own for free. Here are options for Free, WebM, Porn, Video and Sex.

  28. An enormous round of applause, continue the great work.
    videos porno gratis,

  29. Click Here >>>आदमी आदमी की गांड मारते हुए और चुदाई करते हुए My Wife's Gay Brother - Gay Porn

    Click Here >>> महिला के बोसड़े से निकला घोड़े का बच्चा - महिला ने घोड़े के बच्चे को दिया जन्म

    Click Here >>>सानिया मिर्ज़ा की चुत में लंड घुसा दिया Sania Mirza Hot Nude Fucking images

    Click Here >>>Animal Sex – Free collections of animal sex Free porn with animals-Farm Zoo Sex

    Click Here >>>चुद (योनि) मे केला Banana in the vagina Nude Images बोस्ड़ा

    Click Here >>>लड़की के बोबो के फूलने का सही कारण-अगर आप ने कभी टमाटर के आकर के बोबे दबाये होंगे तो आप ने महसूस किया होगा की बोबो के अंदर…

    Click Here >>>पापा ने मेरी चूत फाड़ दी – अब्बा ने बेहिचक अपना लंड मेरे चूत में डाल दिया अब बस कीजिये अब्बा . अब दर्द करने लगा अब्बा ने कहा 2 मिनट और रुक जा बेटी थोड़ी देर में अब्बा के लंड ने फिर से माल छोड़ा हफ्ते में 1-2 बार मेरी चुदाई कर ही

    Click Here >>>प्रियंका चोपड़ा दंग करने वाली तस्वीरें,अंतरंग सीन्स बॉलीवुड से चूत चुदाई ज्ञान तक लगातार सेक्स करके …

    Click Here >>>भारतीय दुल्हन की नग्न तस्वीरें सेक्सी – Newly married indian bride nude Images Indian Dulhan Ki Nangi Photos

    Click Here >>>दीपिका पादुकोण की चूत चोदने की नग्न सेक्स फोटो deepika padukone nude sex images...

    Click Here >>>Sunny Leone Black Bra & Panties Photoshoot Nude hd images...

    Click Here >>>सुहागरात में तीन लोगो ने मुझे जम कर चोदा – एक नम्बर की रंडी की तरह हो भाभी

    Click Here >>>पापा मम्मी की दूसरी सुहागरात-मम्मी बोली अब जब कंडोम लाओगे, तभी कुछ करने की सोचना। Hindi Sex Stories

    Click Here >>>पापा ने मुझे प्रेग्नेंट बनाया-पापा की पिचकारी छुट गयी और उन्होंने अपना सारा पानी मेरी चूत में डाल दिया. फिर वो मेरे ऊपर ही सो गए. पानी गरम था और मुझे जन्नत का अहसास होने लगा.

    सगी बहन को चोदा थूक लगाकर -फाड़ दे राहुल मेरी चूत- तेरी चूत को फाड़ दूँगा और आज तेरी चूत को फाड़कर भोसड़ा बना दूँगा Hindi Sex Stories

    Click Here >>>करीना कपूर की चुदाई की तस्वीरें Bollywood actress Porn Videos

    Reply   Delete

    Post a comment..

  30. When I realize you are sneaking around trying to see my bare ass under my slip I decide to teach you a lesson. Good boys don't peep on Mommie.
    Miss Penny Barber c4s